Aviation taxation and subsidies

Some governments subsidize airports and passenger customs costs within airports.
The EU Commission in 2014 ruled that subsidies Ryanair received from a regional authority a decade ago had to be repaid €525.000.

1. Fuel tax
According to Friends of the Earth 2005 aviation does not pay tax on fuel and aviations expansion is fuelled by its exemption from taxes. In the UK aviation got £9 billion in 2003 tax free benefit. According to Friends of the Earth fuel tax would give incentive to improve the energy efficiency of operations. According to Friends of the Earth taxation would be a more effective response than emission trading.

2. Areas European Union
Historically, EU aviation fuel was tax free and applied no VAT. Domestic fuel taxation in the EU was permitted from 2003 and on intra-EU with bilateral agreements. In 2018 Germany applied 19% VAT on domestic airline tickets. Air fuel tax 33 cents/litre equal to road traffic would give €9.5 billion in the EU. Applying a 15% VAT in all air traffics within and from Europe would be equal to €15 billion.
Swedish government Stefan Loven Lofven I Cabinet proposed in 2019 to collect aviation tax ca €78 million a year. The aviation industry in Sweden would still after this proposal be 100% extempt from the Swedish energy tax, carbon dioxide tax and sulphur tax others pay.

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