Топ-100
  • Spoil tip Spoil tip

    A spoil tip is a pile built of accumulated spoil – waste material removed during mining. These waste materials are typically composed of shale, as well as sm...

  • Tumulus Tumulus

    A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, and may be found througho...

  • Drumlin Drumlin

    A drumlin, from the Irish word droimnin, first recorded in 1833, in the classical sense is an elongated hill in the shape of an inverted spoon or half-buried...

  • Hill Hill

    A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. It often has a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp or dip topography a hill may re...

  • Plateau Plateau

    In geology and physical geography, a plateau, also called a high plain or a tableland, is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrai...

  • Ravine Ravine

    A ravine is a landform that is narrower than a canyon and is often the product of streambank erosion. Ravines are typically classified as larger in scale tha...

  • Canyon Canyon

    A canyon or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales. River...

  • Volcano Volcano

    A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber b...

  • Col Col

    In geomorphology, a col is the lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks. It may also be called a gap. Particularly rugged and forbidding cols in th...

  • Mountain range Mountain range

    A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group...

  • Structural basin Structural basin

    A structural basin is a large-scale structural formation of rock strata formed by tectonic warping of previously flat-lying strata. Structural basins are geo...

  • Mountain Mountain

    A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a...

  • Landform Landform

    A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and thei...

Terrain

Terrain or relief involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface. The term bathymetry is used to describe underwater relief, while hypsometry studies terrain relative to sea level. The Latin word terra means "earth."
In physical geography, terrain is the lay of the land. This is usually expressed in terms of the elevation, slope, and orientation of terrain features. Terrain affects surface water flow and distribution. Over a large area, it can affect weather and climate patterns.

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1. Importance
The understanding of terrain is critical for many reasons:
The terrain of a region largely determines its suitability for human settlement: flatter, alluvial plains tend to have better farming soils with steeper, rockier uplands.
Precise knowledge of terrain is vital in aviation, especially for low-flying routes and maneuvers see terrain collision avoidance and airport altitudes. Terrain will also affect range and performance of radars and terrestrial radio navigation systems. Furthermore, a hilly or mountainous terrain can strongly impact the implementation of a new aerodrome and the orientation of its runways.
In terms of environmental quality, agriculture, hydrology and other interdisciplinary sciences; understanding the terrain of an area assists the understanding of watershed boundaries, drainage characteristics, drainage systems, groundwater systems, water movement, and impacts on water quality. Complex arrays of relief data are used as input parameters for hydrology transport models such as the SWMM or DSSAM Models to allow prediction of river water quality.
Understanding terrain also supports soil conservation, especially in agriculture. Contour ploughing is an established practice enabling sustainable agriculture on sloping land; it is the practice of ploughing along lines of equal elevation instead of up and down a slope.
Terrain is important in determining weather patterns. Two areas geographically close to each other may differ radically in precipitation levels or timing because of elevation differences or a "rain shadow" effect.
Terrain is militarily critical because it determines the ability of armed forces to take and hold areas, and move troops and material into and through areas. An understanding of terrain is basic to both defensive and offensive strategy.

2. Relief
Relief or local relief refers specifically to the quantitative measurement of vertical elevation change in a landscape. It is the difference between maximum and minimum elevations within a given area, usually of limited extent. The relief of a landscape can change with the size of the area over which it is measured, making the definition of the scale over which it is measured very important. Because it is related to the slope of surfaces within the area of interest and to the gradient of any streams present, the relief of a landscape is a useful metric in the study of the Earths surface. Relief energy, which may be defined inter alia as "the maximum height range in a regular grid", is essentially an indication of the ruggedness or relative height of the terrain.

3. Geomorphology
Geomorphology is in large part the study of the formation of terrain or topography. Terrain is formed by concurrent processes:
Geological processes: Migration of tectonic plates, faulting and folding, mountain formation, volcanic eruptions, etc.
Erosional processes: glacial, water, wind, chemical and gravitational mass movement; such as landslides, downhill creep, flows, slumps, and rock falls.
Extraterrestrial: meteorite impacts.
Tectonic processes such as orogenies and uplifts cause land to be elevated, whereas erosional and weathering processes wear the land away by smoothing and reducing topographic features. The relationship of erosion and tectonics rarely if ever reaches equilibrium. These processes are also codependent, however the full range of their interactions is still a topic of debate.
Land surface parameters are quantitative measures of various morphometric properties of a surface. The most common examples are used to derive slope or aspect of a terrain or curvatures at each location. These measures can also be used to derive hydrological parameters that reflect flow/erosion processes. Climatic parameters are based on the modelling of solar radiation or air flow.
Land surface objects, or landforms, are definite physical objects that differ from the surrounding objects. The most typical examples airlines of watersheds, stream patterns, ridges, break-lines, pools or borders of specific landforms.

Terrain - following radar TFR is a military aerospace technology that allows a very - low - flying aircraft to automatically maintain a relatively constant
Fretted terrain is a type of surface feature common to certain areas of Mars and was discovered in Mariner 9 images. It lies between two different types
to that nearer the equator, and is said to have undergone terrain softening. Softened terrain lacks the sharp ridge crests seen near the equator, and is
In astrogeology, chaos terrain or chaotic terrain is a planetary surface area where features such as ridges, cracks, and plains appear jumbled and enmeshed
A terrain park is an outdoor recreation area containing terrain that allows skiers, snowboarders and snowbikers to perform tricks. Terrain parks have their
The Human Terrain System HTS was a United States Army, Training and Doctrine Command TRADOC support program employing personnel from the social science
A controlled flight into terrain CFIT, usually pronounced cee - fit is an accident in which an airworthy aircraft, under pilot control, is unintentionally
areas of chaos terrain officially named by the International Astronomical Union on the planet Mars. Chaos terrain or chaotic terrain is an astrogeological
An all - terrain vehicle ATV also known as a quad, three - wheeler, four - track, four - wheeler, or quadricycle, as defined by the American National Standards
Norrland terrain Swedish: Norrlandsterrang is a geomorphic unit covering the bulk of Norrland and the northwestern half of Svealand. Except for The
Terrain org: A Journal of the Built Natural Environments is an online journal publishing editorials, poetry, essays, fiction, articles, reviews, an
In aviation, a terrain awareness and warning system TAWS is generally an on - board system aimed at preventing unintentional impacts with the ground

Landform

A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and thei...

Mountain

A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a...

Structural basin

A structural basin is a large-scale structural formation of rock strata formed by tectonic warping of previously flat-lying strata. Structural basins are geo...

Mountain range

A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group...

Col

In geomorphology, a col is the lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks. It may also be called a gap. Particularly rugged and forbidding cols in th...

Volcano

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber b...

Canyon

A canyon or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales. River...

Ravine

A ravine is a landform that is narrower than a canyon and is often the product of streambank erosion. Ravines are typically classified as larger in scale tha...

Plateau

In geology and physical geography, a plateau, also called a high plain or a tableland, is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrai...

Hill

A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. It often has a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp or dip topography a hill may re...

Drumlin

A drumlin, from the Irish word droimnin, first recorded in 1833, in the classical sense is an elongated hill in the shape of an inverted spoon or half-buried...

Tumulus

A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, and may be found througho...

Spoil tip

A spoil tip is a pile built of accumulated spoil – waste material removed during mining. These waste materials are typically composed of shale, as well as sm...

other

Other usually refers to: Other philosophy a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: The Other Tryon novel a 1971 In phenom...