The Transcendent Philosophy of the Four Journeys of the Intellect, known as Four Journeys, is an extended compendium of Islamic philosophy written by the 17th century Islamic scholar, Mulla Sadra. The book explains his philosophy of transcendent theosophy. It was first published in print in 1865 in Tehran in four volumes, where it was accompanied by a commentary on three of the volumes by Hadi Sabzavari. To date, no notable, critical English translation of the book has been made.
Mulla Sadrā Sadr ad-Dīn Muhammad Shīrāzī Persian: ملا صدرا ; Molla Sadra; Mollasadra; or Sadr-ol-Moteallehin; Arabic: صدرالمتألهین ) c. 1571 CE–1640 CE, was an Iranian Shia Islamic philosopher, theologian and Ālim scholar. He was a prominent figure in the Iranian cultural renaissance of the 17th century. Oliver Leaman of the University of Kentucky calls Mulla Sadra "the most important and influential philosopher of the last four hundred years in the Muslim world". Mulla Sadras writing style is analytic and critical.
The complete title of the book is Al Hikmat Al Motaaliyyah fi Al Asfar Al Aghliyyah al Arbeah which means, "Transcendent Philosophy on the Four Intellectual Journeys". Mulla Sadras transcendent theosophy drew from Kalam wisdom, Ishraqi philosophy and peripatetic philosophy. In Arabic, the word "asfar" means "journey". Mulla Sadra indicated four journeys of man. The book is sometimes referred to as Asfar. It is also sometimes referred to as Hekmate Motaalyyah. However, the book is not to be confused with Al Masael Al Qodsiyah.
3. Key concepts
Asfar is representative of the greater part of Mulla Sadras philosophical scholarship. In its nine volumes, Asfar examines the philosophical opinions of the different schools of Islamic philosophy. In fact, the compendium acts as a history of Islamic philosophies.
Mulla Sadras work considers the nature of reality. It strives to connect essentialism and existentialism. Mulla Sadras existentialism concerns cosmology as it pertains to Allah. His work synthesizes Avicennism, Shahab al-Din Suhrawardis Illuminationist philosophy, Ibn Arabis Sufi metaphysics, and the theology of the Ashari school and Twelvers.
In the first volume of Asfar, Mulla Sadra focuses solely on an analysis of the concept of wujud "being" and quiddity essence. The first volume has four "journeys". The first journey is concerned with the ontology or the doctrine of being. The second journey is concerned with substance and accidents. The third journey deals with God and his attributes and the fourth journey is about the soul of man and a discussion of man, his destiny, death and resurrection.
In the tenth section of the third journey of Asfar, Mulla Sadra expresses his opinion on the creation of world. He clarifies the meaning of the word "universe" and its place in time. Mulla Sadra says previous philosophers premises and conclusions about the concept of eternity are correct. However, he says, the eternity of the world is not derived from them.
Mulla Sadra advocates a pantheistic doctrine of existence. He also says that God must have a pure existence. Mulla Sadra points out the differences in his conclusions on this topic compared to those of Avicenna.
4. Glossaries and commentaries
Mirza Mahdi Ashtiyyani has made glossaries for Asfar. In 1958, Allameh Muhammad Hosein Tabatabaei and Allameh Muzaffar edited the book in a new version presented in nine volumes. In 1974, Javad Mosleh translated Asfar into Persian. In 1989, Ayatullah Abdullah Javadi-Amoli published a commentary in Persian entitled Raheeq-e Makhtum.
Philosophy of the Four Journeys of the Intellect or simply Four Journeys Born in Shiraz, in what is now Iran, to a notable family of court officials in
theology or philosophy is closely related to this kind of theoria and the mystic vision of the soul. For Clement, God is transcendent and immanent
the author himself, Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei discovered the following sentence in the section devoted to the question of the unity of the intellect
is the adequation of things and intellect which Aquinas attributed to the ninth century Neoplatonist Isaac Israeli. Aquinas also restated the theory
over profit, and transcendent ideals over self - interest. And finally, as a common theme that runs through many works, the idea of the New or Second Enlightenment
and esoteric philosophies and mystery religions. It is the world of the celestial spheres, crossed by the soul in its astral body on the way to being
Theophoric Father, through which, by means of the philosophy of ascetic practice and contemplation, the intellect is purified, illumined, and made perfect
from the early 1950s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy literature, film, and fine art. His most popular works were the two volumes of Capitalism
the opposite of numinous experiences. In the mystical experience, all otherness disappear and the believer becomes one with the transcendent The believer
the transcendent self Brahman. The six orthodox schools of Hinduism believe that there is Ātman soul, self in every being. This is a major point of
insight. The English term enlightenment is the western translation of the abstract noun bodhi, the knowledge or wisdom, or awakened intellect of a Buddha