In Islam, dunyā refers to the temporal world and its earthly concerns and possessions, as opposed to the hereafter. In the Quran, dunyā and ākhira are sometimes used dichotomously, other times complementarily. Islam does not a priori dismiss the world as "evil". Instead, this world is defined as "the field of ākhira and the place of examination. Two Quranic ayat show that dunyā and ākhira are not considered as alternatives to each other per se:
"Ordain for us the good in this world." Surah Yusuf 12:101
What the Quran condemns is too much attention to the earthly life at the cost of forgetting the eternal life. For this purpose, Muslims are encouraged in the Quran 47:24 to ponder the verses of the Quran itself, and to do their best to not get too attached to this temporal existence and its trappings. In Islam, dunyā is a test; success and failure lead to paradise and hell, respectively.


1. Modern usage
The term dunya is originally an Arabic word that derives from the root d-n-w to bring near. In that sense, dunya is "what is brought near". The term has spread to many other languages, particularly those with large groups of Muslim speakers. For example;
Dunia in Malay, Swahili and Indonesian
دنیا Dunya in Urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi and Persian
ਦੁਨੀਆ Dunīā in Punjabi
Duniah in Wakhi,
Dunya in Turkish
Dunya in Turkmen
ꠖꠥꠘꠥꠀꠣꠤ Dunwai in Sylheti
દુનિયા Duniyā in Gujarati
Donya in Javanese
Duniyaaru in Adamawa Fulfulde
Dinya in Kurdish
दुनिया Duniya in Hindi, Marathi and Nepali
Duniya in Hausa
দুনিয়া Duniyā in Bengali and Assamese
Donya/Denya in Egyptian Arabic

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