Топ-100

Outline of Earth sciences

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Earth science:
Earth science all – embracing term for Sciences related to planet Earth. It is also known as the earth Sciences, earth Sciences and Earth Sciences, and perhaps a special case in planetary science, the Earth is the only known life.
Earth science is the branch of physical science, which is part of the natural Sciences. This, in turn, has many branches.

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1. Earths spheres. (Сферах земли)
Ecosphere – there are many subsystems that make up the natural environment of a planetary ecosystem or the "ecosphere" of the Earth. Many of the subsystems are characterized as "spheres", which coincides with the shape of the planet. Four areas for which most other fields are a subtype are the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and Geosphere. Listed roughly from the outer to innermost the named spheres of the Earth:
The exosphere – the outer layer of the atmosphere.
Tropopause – boundary between troposphere and stratosphere.
Troposphere – the lowest layer of the atmosphere.
Mesosphere – the layer of atmosphere directly above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere.
Exobase – the lower boundary of the exosphere.
Atmosphere gases that surround the earth, air.
Thermopause – the upper boundary of the thermosphere.
Magnetosphere – the region around an astronomical object in which charged particles depends on the magnetic field.
Ionosphere – the ionized portion of Earths upper atmosphere.
Stratopause – the upper boundary of the stratosphere.
The ozone layer – the region of earths stratosphere that absorbs most ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
Planetary boundary layer – the lower part of the atmosphere directly influenced by contact with the planetary surface.
Thermosphere – the atmospheric layer above the mesosphere and below the exosphere.
Mesopause – the minimum temperature at the boundary between the mesosphere and the thermosphere.
At the height of.
Stratosphere – the atmospheric layer above the troposphere.
Heterosphere – the upper part of the atmosphere in which the component gases dont mix well.
Air turbulence. (Турбулентность воздуха)
Turbopause certain height in the Earths atmosphere below which turbulent mixing dominates.
Homosphere – the lower part of the atmosphere in which the component gases are well-mixed.
Antroposfera – part of the environment that is made or modified by humans for use in human activities and the human environment.
Rare the noosphere – sphere of human thought.
The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems on Earth.
Geosphere solid earth is the collective name for the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and atmosphere.
The cryosphere – the part of the earths surface where water is in solid form.
Lithosphere – rigid outer shell of earth-like planet or natural satellite, which is determined by its rigid mechanical properties.
Geology the crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
The soil is the upper layer of earth that consists of soil and subject to soil formation processes.
Hydrosphere – the combined mass of water on, UNDER and above the surface of the planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
Mantle – the part of the bowels of the planet Earth between the crust and the core.
The asthenosphere, the highly viscous, mechanically weak and malleable region of the upper mantle of the Earth.
Inner core – the inner part of the Earth, a solid ball of iron-Nickel alloy.
The outer core of the Earth is a liquid layer composed mostly of iron and Nickel between the earths solid inner core and mantle.
Mesosphere – the part of the Earth mantle below the lithosphere and asthenosphere, but above the outer core.
The Earths core – the inner part of the planet, formed by differential buoyancy component causes the more dense materials to accumulate closer to the center.

2.1. Department of Earth Sciences. Atmospheric science. (Атмосферные науки)
Atmospheric science – the study of the atmosphere, its processes and interactions with other systems
Paleotempestology – the study of past tropical cyclone activity using geological proxies and historical documents.
Paleoclimatology – the study of climate change taken on the scale of all Earth history.
Climatology – the science of climate is defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
Atmospheric physics – application of physics to the study of the atmosphere.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of science about the atmosphere in which the chemical composition of the atmosphere is studied.

2.2. Department of Earth Sciences. Geology. (Геология)
Historical Geology the science of Earths geological history.
Planetary Geology – Geology of astronomical objects, apparently in orbit around stellar objects.
Petroleum Geology – the study of the origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.
Hydrogeology – the study of the distribution and movement of groundwater.
Quaternary Geology – the branch of Geology that studies the development of events is later than 2.6 million years ago.
Environmental Geology is the study of the practical application of Geology to environmental problems.
Structural Geology – the science of description and interpretation of deformation in the earths crust independent of the degree.
Geology – the study of composition, structure, physical properties and history of the earths components and the processes by which they are formed.
Micropaleontology is the branch of paleontology that studies microorganisms.
Gemology is the science dealing with natural and artificial gems.
Of geomicrobiology is the study of the interactions between Microbiology and Geology.
Mineral physics is the science of materials that make up the planets interior.
Geomagnetics – the study of Earths magnetic field.
Glaciology is the study of ice and natural phenomena involving ice.
Geochemistry is the science that applies chemistry to the analysis of geological systems.
Geophysics – physics of the Earth and its environment in space and the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods.
Mineralogy – the science that studies minerals and artifacts mineralized.
Geodesy is the science of geometric shape, orientation in space and the gravitational field of the Earth.
Geochronology – the science of determining the age of rocks, sediments and fossils.
Petrology – branch of Geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution and structure of rocks.
Physical geodesy is the study of the physical properties of the Earths gravitational field.
Paleontology – the science of prehistoric life.
Sedimentology – the study of natural precipitation and the processes by which they are formed.
Seismology – the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves in the Planet.
Paleoseismology – the study of earthquakes that have occurred in the past.
Palynology – the study of dust.
Volcanology – study of volcanoes, lava, magma and related phenomena.
Stratigraphy is the study of rock layers and their education.

2.3. Department of Earth Sciences. Geography. (География)
Geography – the science that studies the earths surface, the societies that inhabit it and of the territories, landscapes, places or regions that constitute it.
Global positioning system GPS is a U.S. satellite navigation system.
Human geography – the study of cultures, communities and activities of the peoples of the world.
Economic Geology the science of earth materials of economic value.
Pedology the study of soils in their natural environment.
Pedology – the science that deals with the influence of soils on living.
Geographic information system – system for collecting, managing and presenting geographic data.
Geomorphology – the science that studies the terrain and the processes that shape them.
Engineering Geology – application of Geology to engineering practice.
Environmental soil science – the study of human interaction with the pedosphere as well as critical aspects of the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
Satellite navigation – any system that uses satellite signals to provide Autonomous geospatial positioning.
Geostatistics – a branch of statistics focusing on spatial datasets.
Environmental chemistry – the science that studies the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
Physical geography – branch of natural science that deals with the study of processes and patterns in the environment, e.g., atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and Geosphere, in contrast to the cultural or built environment, human geography.
Spatial systems decision support – automated help solutions in land management.
Photogrammetry – the science of measurement using pictures.
Hydrology – the science of applying engineering methods to the properties of earth, water, especially its movement in relation to the Ground.
Environmental Geology is an applied science dealing with practical application of the principles of Geology in solving environmental problems.
Remote sensing – obtaining information at a considerable distance from the object.
Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere focusing on weather.

2.4. Department of Earth Sciences. Oceanography. (Океанографии)
Oceanography – the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean
Biological Oceanography – the study of how organisms influence and depends on physics, chemistry and Geology Oceanographic systems.
Physical Oceanography – the study of physical conditions and physical processes in the ocean.
Limnology – the science of inland water ecosystems.
Marine Geology – the study of the history and structure of the ocean.
Chemical Oceanography – the study of the chemical composition of the ocean.
Paleoceanography – the study of the history of the oceans in the geological past.

2.5. Department of Earth Sciences. Planetary science. (Планетарной науки)
Planetary science – study of planets including Earth, moon, and planets, in particular the Solar system and the processes that form them.
Selenography - the study of the surface and physical characteristics of the moon.
Planetary Geology - Geology of astronomical objects, apparently in orbit around stellar objects.
Theoretical planetology - theoretical study of the internal structure of the planet, making assumptions about their chemical composition and state of their materials, the calculation of the radial distribution of various properties such as temperature, pressure or density of the material in the inner planets.

3. History of Earth Sciences. (История наук о Земле)
History of Earth Sciences history embracing the Sciences related to the planet Earth. Earth science and all its branches of physical science.
The history of atmospheric chemistry.
History of atmospheric Sciences – history of the umbrella study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems on the atmosphere, and the effect of the atmosphere on these other systems.
The history of climate science.
History of meteorology. (История метеорологии)
The history of coastal geography – history of the study of the dynamic interaction between the ocean and land, given how physical geography, i.e. coastal geomorphology, Geology, Oceanography and socio-economic geography, sociology and history of the coast.
History of population dynamics – the history of the population dynamics is the branch of natural Sciences that studies short-and long-term changes in numbers and age composition of the population, as well as biological and environmental processes influencing those changes.
History of marine biology the history of scientific study of organisms in the ocean or other marine or brackish bodies of water.
The history of biogeography – the history of the study of the distribution of species biology, organisms and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
History of cartography – history of study and practice of making maps or globes.
The history of freshwater biology – the history of the scientific biological studies of freshwater ecosystems and is a branch of Limnology.
History of ecology – History of science, which studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance depend on the interaction between organisms and their environment.
The story of climate science – history of the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
History of Parasitology – history of Parasitology examines parasites, their hosts, and the relationships between them.
History of environmental science – history of the integrated, quantitative and interdisciplinary approach to the study of ecological systems.
History of toxicology – history of the branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the harmful effects of chemicals on living organisms.
History of environmental Geology – history of the environmental Geology, like hydrogeology, is an applied science dealing with practical application of the principles of Geology in solving environmental problems.
History of environmental soil science – environmental history of soil science is the study of human interaction with the pedosphere as well as critical aspects of the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
History of environmental chemistry – history-environmental chemistry-the science that studies the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
History of planetary Geology – the history of planetary science discipline concerned the Geology of celestial bodies such as planets and their satellites, asteroids, comets and meteorites.
History of Geology – history of the study of the Earth, with a total isolation from modern life, ocean currents and the atmosphere.
History of geo-Informatics – History of science and technology which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geography, Geology and related branches of engineering.
History of geodesy – the History of a scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field in three-dimensional time-space different.
History of geography – History of science that studies the lands, features, inhabitants and phenomena of Earth.
The history of paleoclimatology is the history of the study of climate change taken on the scale of all Earth history.
History of hydrology – the history of the study of movement, distribution and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
History of seismology the history of the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the earth or through other planet-like bodies.
History of Oceanography – the history of the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean.
History of the relief – history of the study of surface shape and features of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects: planets, moons and asteroids.
History of Limnology – history of the study of inland waters.
History of soil science – history of the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping, physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
History of Geophysics – history of physics of the Earth and its environment in space and the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods.
History of geomorphology – history of the scientific study of landforms and processes that shape their.
History of hydrogeology – history of Geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in soil and rocks of the earths crust, usually in aquifers.
The history of Petrology – the history of the branch of Geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution and structure of rocks.
History of meteorology – history of the interdisciplinary study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events.
The history of Volcanology – history of the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
History of Mineralogy – history of the study of chemistry, crystal structure and physical including optical properties of minerals.
History of geostatistics – the history of a branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets.
History of paleontology – history of the study of prehistoric life.
History of glaciology – the history of the study of glaciers, or in a broader sense, ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.

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