The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry:
Biochemical – study of chemical processes in living organisms including living matter. Biochemistry defines all living organisms and living processes.
1. Applications of biochemistry. (Приложения биохимии)
Screening for breast cancer – identifying risks by testing for mutations in two genes - breast cancer 1 gene BRCA1 and breast cancer 2 gene BRCA2 - allows a woman to plan an increase in screening tests more often than in the General population.
Pregnancy tests – one uses a urine sample and a blood test. How to detect the presence of the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin HCG.This hormone is produced by the placenta shortly after implantation of the embryo in the uterine walls and accumulates.
Ames test – Salmonella bacteria exposed to the chemical in question is a food additive, for example, and changes in how the bacteria grows is measured. This test is useful for screening chemicals to see if they are changing the structure of DNA, and to determine their potential to cause cancer in humans.
Prenatal genetic testing – testing of the fetus for potential genetic defects, for detection of chromosomal abnormalities such as down syndrome or birth defects such as spina bifida.
Test-PKU – phenylketonuria is a metabolic disorder in which the individual lacks the enzyme phenylalanine-hydroxylase. The lack of this enzyme allows the buildup of phenylalanine, which can lead to mental retardation.
Gene therapy, a modified or healthy gene is injected into the body to replace disease-causing genes. Usually the virus that has been modified to carry human DNA is used to deliver healthy genes to the target cells of a patient. This process was first used successfully in 1990 on a 4-year-old patient who lacked an immune system due to a rare genetic disease called severe combined immunodeficiency SCID.
Cloning – Dolly the sheep was the first mammal ever cloned from cells of an adult animal. The cloned sheep was, of course, genetically identical to the original adult sheep. This clone was created by taking cells from the udder of 6-year-old ewe and grow them in the laboratory.
Genetic engineering taking a gene from one organism and placing it in another. Biochemists inserted the gene for human insulin into bacteria. Bacteria, goes through the translation process, the creation of human insulin.
2. Branches of biochemistry. (Филиалы биохимии) Main branches. (Основные ветви)
Cell biology. (Клеточная биология)
Metabolism. (Обмен веществ)
Biochemistry of animals. (Биохимия животных)
Molecular biology. (Молекулярная биология)
Other branches. (Другие филиалы)
Biotechnology, Bioluminescence, molecular chemistry, enzymatic chemistry, genetic engineering, pharmaceuticals, endocrinology, Hematology neurochemistry, nutrition, photosynthesis, environment, Toxicology
3. General concepts of biochemistry. (Общие понятия биохимии)
Carbohydrates: sugar -- disaccharide -- polysaccharide -- starch -- glycogen.
Nucleic acids: DNA -- RNA -- -- -- -- a mRNA tRNA rRNA codon -- adenosine -- cytosine -- guanine -- thymine -- uracil.
Peptide -- primary structure -- secondary structure -- tertiary structure -- conformation -- protein folding.
Lipids: fatty acid -- fats -- essential oils -- oils -- waxes -- cholesterol.
Amino acid -- glycine -- arginine -- lysine.
Major categories of bio-compounds.
Molecular bond -- covalent bond -- ionic bond -- hydrogen bond -- ester -- ethyl.
Molecular charge -- hydrophilic -- hydrophobic -- polar.
PH -- acid -- alkaline -- base.
Oxidation -- reduction -- hydrolysis.
Chemical properties. (Химические свойства)
In cells: flagellin -- peptidoglycan -- myelin -- actin -- myosin.
Structural connections. (Структурные связи)
In plants: cellulose -- lignin -- cell wall.
In animals: chitin -- keratin -- collagen -- silk.
Kinase -- dehydrogenase. (Киназы -- дегидрогеназы)
Enzyme Kinetics -- enzyme inhibition.
Proteolysis -- ubiquitin -- proteasome.
Enzymes and enzymes. (Ферменты и энзимы)
Phospholipids -- glycolipid -- glycocalyx -- antigen -- isoprene.
Ion channel -- proton pump -- electron transport -- ion gradient -- antiporter -- symporter -- quinone -- Riboflavin.
Shell: fluid mosaic model -- diffusion -- osmosis.
Fermentation: acetyl-COA -- lactic acid.
Energy channels. (Энергетические каналы)
Cellular respiration: adenosine triphosphate ATP -- NADH -- pyruvate -- oxalate -- citrate.
The chemosynthesis. (Хемосинтеза)
Photosynthesis: light reaction -- dark reaction.
Pigments: chlorophyll -- carotenoids -- xanthophyll -- cytochrome -- phycobilin -- bacteriorhodopsin -- the hemoglobin -- myoglobin -- absorption spectrum -- action spectrum -- fluorescence.
Signal transduction -- growth factor -- transcription factor -- protein kinase -- SH3 domain.
Hormones: auxins. (Гормоны: ауксины)
Malfunctions: tumor -- oncogene -- a gene-suppressor of tumor growth.
Receptors: integrin -- transmembrane receptor -- ion channel.
Techniques: electrophoresis -- chromatography -- mass spectrometry -- x-ray diffraction -- southern Blot -- fractionation -- gram -- surface plasmon resonance -- the microscale Thermophoresis.
4. Biochemical methods. (Биохимические методы) Molecular genetics. (Молекулярная генетика)
Polymerase chain reaction. (Полимеразная цепная реакция)
Fusion proteins. (Протеины сплавливания)
DNA sequencing. (Секвенирование ДНК)
DNA microchips. (Микрочипы ДНК)
Flow cytometry. (Проточная цитометрия)
Northern blotting. (Северная промокательной)
Western blot for Sauterne;.
Structural definition. (Структурное определение)
X-ray crystallography. (Рентгеновская кристаллография)
Isotopic labeling. (Изотопная маркировка)
Mass spectrometry. (Масс-спектрометрия)
Electron microscopy. (Электронная микроскопия)
Molecular dynamics. (Молекулярная динамика)
Interactions between biomolecules. (Взаимодействий между биомолекулами)
The electrophoretic mobility shift analysis.
South-Western blotting. (Юго-западный Blotting)
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