List of experiments

See also: timeline of scientific experiments and List of discoveries
The following is a list of historically important scientific experiments and observations demonstrating that great scientific interest, as a rule, elegant and smart way.

1. Astronomy. (Астрономия)
The supernova cosmology project and high-z supernova search team discover, by observing distant type Ia supernovas that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating 1998.
Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson detect cosmic microwave background radiation, giving support to the Big Bang theory, 1964.
OLE Romer makes the first quantitative estimate of the speed of light in 1676 at the time of motion of the satellite IO of Jupiter through a telescope.
Kerim Kerimov launches the Cosmos 186 and Cosmos 188 as experiments on automatic docking eventually leading to the development of space stations 1967.
Galileo Galilei uses a telescope to observe the moons of Jupiter appear to circle Jupiter. This evidence supports the heliocentric model, and weakens the geocentric model of the cosmos 1609.
Eratosthenes estimates circumference of Earth distance between Alexandria and the place where the sun is directly overhead at noon, 240 BC.

2. Biology. (Биология)
Luria–delbrück experiment demonstrates that in bacteria, beneficial mutations arise in the absence of choice, not a response to the selection of 1943.
Edward Jenner tests his hypothesis for the protective action of the weak cowpox infection for smallpox, the first vaccine in 1796.
Frederick Griffith demonstrates the experiment Griffiths that living cells can be transformed using the transformation principle, later discovered DNA in 1928.
Alexander Fleming shows that the zone of inhibition around the growth of the penicillin mold on a plate culture of bacteria caused by diffusible substances secreted forms of 1928.
Charles Darwin and his son Francis, using dark-grown seedlings of oats, will receive a stimulus for phototropism is found at the tip escaping the tip of the coleoptile, and the curvature occurs in the region below the tip of 1880.
Linus Pauling and his colleagues show in "sickle-cell anemia, a molecular disease", which is a genetic disease, sickle cell anemia, caused by a molecular change in a specific protein, hemoglobin 1949.
James Lind published a Treatise on scurvy, which describes a controlled ship experiment using two identical populations but with only one variable, the consumption of citrus 1753.
Hershey–chase experiment Alfred Hershey and Martha chase uses bacteriophage to prove that DNA is the hereditary material 1952.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovers the microorganisms 1674-1676.
Barbara McClintock breeds maize plants for color, which leads to the discovery of mobile elements or jumping genes, in 1944.
John Gurdon, cloning animals, frog, tadpole, egg, using the nucleus from an intestinal cell in 1962.
The experiments of Gregor Mendel with pea seed led him to the conclusion, many of the basic laws of genetics 1856-1863.
Emil von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō to demonstrate passive immunity, protecting animals from infection by the introduction of immune serum 1890.
Mary-Dell Chilton shows that crown gall tumors of plants are caused by the transfer of a small piece of DNA from the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which on the host plant where it becomes part of its genome, 1977.
Demonstration of the role of reverse transcriptase in tumor viruses, independently by Howard Temin and David Baltimore, 1970.
Charles Darwin shows evolution by natural selection, using many examples, 1859.
George wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatums controversial "one gene-one enzyme hypothesis" based on induced mutations in neurospora crassa bread mold 1941.
Roger W. Sperry shows the potential independence of these two sides of the human brain using split-brain patients 1962-1965.
Nirenberg and Mattei demonstrating experiment in the laboratory of protein synthesis using synthetic RNA as to substitute for RNA in 1961.
Karl von Frisch decodes the waggle dance bees use to communicate the location of flowers in 1940.
Louis Pasteur uses S-shaped flasks to prevent spores from contaminating broth. This refutes the theory of spontaneous generation 1861 spreading rancid meat experiment of Francesco Redi 1668 in micro-scale.
Robert Hooke, using a microscope, observes cells in 1665.
Thomas hunt Morgan identifies sex chromosome linked gene in Drosophila 1910, and his student Alfred Sturtevant develops the first genetic map in 1913.
Napoli, Lemieux and Jorgensen discover the principle of RNA interference 1990.
Crick, Brenner et al. experiment using sign of mutations to support the triplet nature of the genetic code in 1961.
Meselson–Stahl experiment proves that DNA replication is semiconservative in 1958.
Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen selectively clone genes in bacteria, using bacterial plasmids cut at certain endonuclease 1975.
Nirenberg and Leder experiment, binding tRNA to ribosomes with synthetic RNA to decipher the genetic code of 1964.

3. Chemistry. (Химия)
Ernest Rutherford discovers that atoms have a very small positively charged nucleus in the gold foil experiment, also known as Geiger–Marsden experiment 1909.
Robert brown studies very small particles in water under the microscope and observes Brownian motion which was later named in his honour 1827.
William Ramsay and Lord Rayleigh, John Strutt to isolate the noble gases, 1894-1898.
Thomas Graham measures the rates of effusion for different gases and establishes Grahams law of effusion and diffusion 1833.
Antoine Lavoisier determines that a chemical reaction in a closed container do not alter total mass. From these observations he establishes the law of conservation of mass in 1789.
Melvin Calvin and Andrew Benson delineate the path of carbon in photosynthesis using Chlorella and carbon dioxide labeled with carbon-14 CO2 1945-1954.
Glenn Seaborg and his colleagues are creating and to isolate the five transuranium elements. They reorganize the periodic in its current form. 1941-1950.
Frederick Soddy and William Ramsay to observe the production of helium from alpha particles, the radioactive decay of 1903.
Of Arrhenius Svante determines the effect of temperature on the reaction rate and formulated the concept of activation energy of 1889.
Svante Arrhenius study of electrical conductivity of salt solutions and determines that salts dissociate into ions in water 1884.
Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford suggests that the heat generated from the friction of boring cannon is almost inexhaustible. This result was presented in opposition of the caloric theory of 1798.
Antoine Lavoisier determines that oxygen is combined with materials upon combustion, thus disproving the theory of phlogiston in 1783.
Demonstrates the Sanger dideoxy - method or chain termination to sequence DNA, 1975.
Robert Boyle uses an air pump to determine the inverse relationship between pressure and volume of gas. This relationship became known as the law of Boyle 1660-1662.
Anders Jonas Ångstrom notes the presence of hydrogen and other elements in the spectrum of the sun 1862.
Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman open the fission of uranium in 1938.
Louis Pasteur separates racemic mixture of two enantiomers by sorting individual crystals, and shows their influence on the polarization of light in 1849.
Michael color, Michael S. color separates chlorophyll from other plant pigments using chromatography 1901.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac studies reactions among gases and determines that their volumes combine chemically in simple integer ratios, 1809.
François-Marie Raoult shows that the decrease in vapour pressure and of freezing temperature of the liquid caused by addition of solutes is proportional to the number of solute molecules present. It establishes the concept of colligative properties of 1878.
Albert Szent-Gyorgyi and Hans Adolf Krebs discover the citric acid cycle of oxidative metabolism 1935-1937.
Otto Hahn discovers nuclear isomerism 1921.
The Miller–Urey experiment demonstrates that organic compounds can arise spontaneously from inorganic 1953.
Neil Bartlett mixes xenon and platinum hexafluoride leading to the first synthesis of a noble gas compound, xenon hexafluoroplatinate 1962.
Cary Mullis demonstrates the polymerase chain reaction, a method for amplifying specific fragments of DNA in 1983.
Joseph Priestley suspends a bowl of water above beer VAT at a brewery and synthesizes carbonated water 1767.
Friedrich Wohler synthesized the organic compound urea using inorganic reactants, disproving the application of vitalism to chemical processes, 1828.
In Erwin Chargaff refutes the "theory tetranucleoide" the structure of DNA and determines that the composition of double-stranded DNA follows the rule, %a = %T and %G = %with Chargaffs rule. This discovery is crucial for the formulation of the Watson-Crick model of DNA structure.
Blaise Pascal carries a barometer up a Church tower and a mountain to determine that atmospheric pressure due to the column of air in 1648.
Henri Becquerel, Marie Curie and Pierre Curie discover radioactivity and describe its properties 1896.
Humphry Davy uses electrolysis to isolate elemental potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and chlorine 1807-1810.
Robert burns Woodward announces the total synthesis of vitamin B-12 by a team he led in 1973. Insights from this work lead him and Roald Hoffmann to formulate the Woodward–Hoffman rules to explain the stereochemistry of the products of organic reactions.
Julius Robert von Mayer and James Prescott Joule to measure heat, mechanical work. This establishes the principle of conservation of energy and kinetic theory of heat 1842-1843.

4. Of Economics and political science. (Экономики и политических наук)
Robert Axelrods prisoners dilemma computer tournaments, later documented in the development of cooperation 1984.
The experiments of Muhammad Yunuss use of microcredit and microfinance in rural Bangladesh in 1971.

5. Geology. (Геология)
Charles Mason conducts an experiment near the Scottish mountain of Schiehallion that attempts to measure the average density of the Earth for the first time. Known as the Schiehallion experiment in 1774.

6. Physics. (Физика)
The observation of the spot of Arago Francois Arago in 1819, approved the new wave theory of light, Augustin-Jean Fresnel refuting skeptics, like Simeon Denis Poisson.
Ernest Rutherfords gold foil experiment showed that the positive charge and the mass of the atom is concentrated in a Central atomic nucleus, disproving the popular plum pudding model of the atom 1911.
The Michelson–Morley experiment demonstrates the weaknesses of the prevailing variant of the theory of luminiferous ether 1887.
Robert Boyle shows that the volume of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on it 1660.
Guglielmo Marconi demonstrates that radio signals can travel between two points separated by an obstacle. Servant Marconis from behind a hill 3 kilometers away and rifle the signals 1895.
James Prescott Joule demonstrates the mechanical equivalent of heat, an important step in the development of thermodynamics 1834.
Eotvos Lorand eötvös publishes the results of the second series of experiments, clearly demonstrating that inertial and gravitational mass are one and the same. 1909.
Alessandro Volta constructs a new source of electrical energy, electric battery in 1796.
J. Thompson experiments with cathode ray tube and discovers the electron a negative charge in 1897.
Kamerlingh Heike onnes demonstrates superconductivity 1911.
Heinrich Hertz demonstrates free space electromagnetic waves, predicted by the Maxwell equations, with a simple dipole antenna and spark gap oscillator 1887.
Edwin hall discovers a voltage across the conductor with the applied transverse magnetic field, the Hall effect 1879.
Thomas young shows that light is a wave in the double-slit experiment of S. 1805, extended in the 20th century to show that a particle at the same time.
Oersted Hans Christian discovers the connection of electricity and magnetism by experiments with a compass and electric circuits 1820.
Galileo Galilei uses rolling balls to disprove the Aristotelian theory of motion 1602-07.
Benjamin Franklin beginning in 1747 describes experiments in letters to Peter Collinson, demonstrating electrical principles, which were published in a book called Experiments and observations on electricity.
Otto von Guericke demonstrates atmospheric pressure using Magdeburg hemispheres in 1654.
Michael Faraday discovers magnetic induction in an experiment with a closed ring of soft iron with two coils of wire 1831.
Leon Foucaults namesake Foucault pendulum is first exhibited. It demonstrates the Coriolis effect and the rotation of the Earth 1851.
Henry Cavendishs torsion bar experiment measures the force of gravity in the laboratory 1798.
Robert Millikans oil-drop experiment which suggests that electric charge occurs as whole units quanta, 1909.
Christian Doppler arranges the trumpets played from a passing train. The ground-observed the field was more than played when a train is approaching, it is played less, as the train passed and moved away, demonstrating the Doppler effect in 1845.
Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard to build the first critical nuclear reactor 1942.
Enrico Fermi and his team in Rome to reach a nuclear reaction.
The scout rocket experiment confirms the effect of time dilation due to gravity. 1976.
Cockroft–Walton generator. (Кокрофт–Уолтона генератор)
In chien-Shiung Wu and heads the group, which refutes the conservation of parity Wus 1956 experiment.
Eric Cornell and Carl wieman, E. A. to synthesize a condensate of Bose–Einstein at the University of Colorado at boulder 1995.
Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick ryness confirm the existence of the neutrino in the neutrino experiment 1955.
Arthur Eddington leads an expedition to the island of Principe to observe a total solar Eclipse to gravitational lensing, see the experiment of Eddington. This allows for observation of the bending of starlight under gravity, a prediction of the theory of relativity of albert Einstein. It was confirmed, though it was later shown that the margin of error was as great as the observed bending 1919.
Alain aspect performs the test experiments bell in the 1980-ies.
Otto stern and Walter Gerlach conduct the stern–Gerlach that shows the rotation of the particles 1920.
John Bardeen and Walter Brattain created the first working transistor in 1947.

7. Psychology. (Психология)
Ivan Pavlovs experiments with dogs and classical conditioning of 1900-ies.
Allan and Beatrice Gardner attempts to teach American sign language chimpanzee Washoe 1970-ies.
Research Martin Seligman learned helplessness in the 1970s dogs.
John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner conduct the Little albert experiment showing evidence of classical conditioning of 1920.
B. F. Skinners demonstration of operant conditioning of the 1930s-1960s years.
Philip Zimbardos Stanford prison experiment 1971.
The experiments Asch conformity shows how group pressure can persuade people to conform to the obviously incorrect opinion 1951.
Stanley Milgrams experiments on human beings, obedience 1963.
Harry Harlows experiments with baby monkeys and wire and cloth surrogate mothers 1957-1974.
The Kansas city preventive patrol experiment 1972-1973 it was designed to test the assumption that the presence or potential presence of police officers in marked cars reduced the likelihood of crime committed. It was not found any relationship.
The Rosenhan Experiment Of 1972. It involves the use of healthy associates or "pseudopatients" who briefly simulated auditory hallucinations in an attempt to gain admission into 12 different psychiatric hospitals. The hospital staff failed to detect a single pseudopatient. The study is an important and influential criticism of psychiatric diagnosis.
Vilayanur S. Ramachandrans experiment on Phantom limbs with the mirror box throw light on the nature of learned paralysis 1998.
Elizabeth Loftus and John C. Palmers car crash experiment shows that leading questions can produce false memories 1974.
Walter Mischels marshmallow experiment shows the importance of the results life the ability to delay gratification beginning of the end of 1960-ies.
The Benjamin Libets experiment about free will shows that the potential readiness before the concept of the task is a conscious experience that has sparked debate about the illusory nature of free again. 1983.

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