Топ-100

Earth science

Earth science and geo-ecology includes all areas of science related to the planet Earth. Is the branch of science dealing with the physical Constitution of the Earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planets physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops and floods to fossils. Earth science can be regarded as a branch of planetary science, but with a more ancient history. Earth science encompasses four main branches of the study of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere, each of which is subdivided into more specialized fields.
There is as reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth Sciences. He is also studying the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some earth scientists use their knowledge of the planet on the exploration and development of energy and mineral resources. Other studies of the impact of human activities on the Earths environment and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.
Earth science may include the study of Geology, lithosphere and large-scale structure of the interior land and of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Typically, earth scientists will use tools from Geology, history, physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics with the aim of forming a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. Earth science affects our daily lives. For example, meteorologists study the weather and watch for dangerous storms. Hydrologists study water and warn of floods. Seismologists study earthquakes and try to understand where they will strike. Geologists study rocks and help to find minerals. Earth scientists often work in the field - perhaps, to climbing mountains, exploring the seabed, crawling through caves, or sinking in the swamps. They measure and collect samples, such as rocks or river water, then they record their findings on charts and maps.

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1. Field of study. (Полевые исследования)
In the following areas of science, as a rule, manifests itself in Earth Sciences:
Glaciology covers the icy parts of the Earth or the cryosphere.
Geophysics and geodesy-the study of the figure of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravitational fields. Geophysics study of the Earths core and mantle, as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere. Geophysics is typically used in addition to the work of geologists in developing a comprehensive understanding of the earths crust, Geology, particularly in mineral and petroleum exploration. Seismologists use Geophysics to understand the plate tectonic displacement and prediction of seismic activity.
Geochemistry is defined as the study of the processes that govern the size, composition and distribution of chemicals and isotopes in geologic environments. Geochemists use the tools and principles of chemistry to study the composition, structure, processes, and other physical aspects of the Earth. The main sections are aqueous Geochemistry, cosmochemistry, isotope Geochemistry and biogeochemistry.
Ecology covers the interactions between organisms and their environment. This field of study, highlight the study of the Earth from the study of other planets in the Solar system, the Earth its the only planet teeming with life.
Atmospheric Sciences cover the gaseous parts of the Earth or of the atmosphere between the surface and the exosphere, about 1.000 km away. the Main topics include meteorology, climatology, atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics.
Soil science covers the layer of the earths crust, which depends on processes of soil formation and the soil. The main divisions in this field of study include edaphology and Pedology.
Geology describes the rocky parts of the earths crust or lithosphere and its historical development. The main sections-Mineralogy and petrography, geomorphology, paleontology, stratigraphy, structural Geology, engineering Geology and lithology.
Hydrology, Oceanography and Limnology research, which focused on the movement, distribution and quality of water, and includes all the components of the hydrologic cycle on the Earth and its atmosphere or hydrosphere. "Sub-disciplines of hydrology include Hydrometeorology, surface water hydrology, hydrogeology, watershed science, forest hydrology, chemistry and chemistry of water.".

2. The interior of the land. (Интерьер земли)
Plate tectonics, mountain ranges, volcanoes, and earthquakes are geological phenomena that can be explained from the point of view of physical and chemical processes in the earths crust.
Beneath the crust lies the mantle which is heated by the radioactive decay of heavy elements. The back is not quite solid and consists of magma which is in a state of semi-perpetual convection. This convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly. As a result, the process is called plate tectonics.
Plate tectonics can be seen as the process by which the Land is cleared. As a result, the seafloor spreading new crust and lithosphere is created the flow of magma from the mantle to the near surface, through fissures, where it cools and hardens. Via subduction of oceanic crust and lithosphere is returned to the convecting mantle.
Areas of the crust where new crust is created are called divergent boundaries, those where it returns to the earth convergent boundaries and those where plates slide past each other, but no new lithospheric material is created or destroyed, is called the transform or conservative boundaries earthquakes result from the movement of lithospheric plates, and they often occur near convergent boundaries where parts of the crust are forced into the earth as part of subduction.
Volcanoes result primarily from melting of crustal material Abdullojanov. Crust material that is forced into the asthenosphere melts, and some portion of the melted material becomes light enough to rise to the surface - the birth of the volcanoes.

3. The earths atmosphere. (Атмосфера Земли)
Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere-five layers that make up the Earths atmosphere. 75% of the Gases in the atmosphere are the troposphere, the bottom layer. In General, the atmosphere consists of 78.0% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, and 0.92% argon. In addition to the nitrogen, oxygen and argon, there are small amounts of other gases including CO2 and water vapor. Water vapor and CO2 allow the Earths atmosphere to catch and hold the Suns energy through a phenomenon called the greenhouse effect. This allows earths surface to be warm enough to have liquid water and support life. In addition to storing heat, the atmosphere also protects living organisms, protecting the Earth surface from cosmic rays, which are often incorrectly considered to be deflected in the magnetic field. A magnetic field is created the internal motion of the nucleus creates the magnetosphere, which protects Earths atmosphere from the solar wind. And the Earth is 4.5 billion years, it would lose its atmosphere if it were not for the protective magnetosphere.

4. The Earths magnetic field. (Магнитное поле Земли)
An electromagnet is a magnet created an electric current. The earth has a solid iron inner core surrounded by a liquid outer core, which convects, therefore, the earth is an electromagnet. The motion of the fluid convection and supports magnetic field of the Earth.

5. Methodology. (Методология)
Methodologies differ depending on the nature of the subjects being studied. Studies generally fall into one of three categories: observational, experimental or theoretical. Earth scientists often conduct sophisticated computer analysis or visit an interesting place for studying phenomena on the Earth, such as Antarctica or hot spot island chains.
Fundamental ideas in Earth Sciences is the concept of uniformitarianism, which says that "ancient geologic features are interpreted by understanding active processes that are readily observed". In other words, any geologic processes occurring now operates in the same way throughout geological time. This enables those who study Earths history to apply knowledge about the effect of terrestrial processes in the present, to get an idea about how the planet evolved and changed throughout history.

6. Earths spheres. (Сферах земли)
Earth science generally recognizes four spheres, lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere, which correspond to rocks, water, air and life. Also included are some of the relevant cryosphere ice as a separate part of the hydrosphere and pedosphere appropriate soil and mixed as an active area.

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